A history of trigonometry in mathematics

Such concepts would have been part of everyday life in hunter-gatherer societies. The idea of the "number" concept evolving gradually over time is supported by the existence of languages which preserve the distinction between "one", "two", and "many", but not of numbers larger than two. For example, paleontologists have discovered in a cave in South Africaochre rocks about 70, years old, adorned with scratched geometric patterns. Moreover, hunters and herders employed the concepts of one, two, and many, as well as the idea of none or zero, when considering herds of animals.

A history of trigonometry in mathematics

Trigonometry is not the work of any one person or nation. Its history spans thousands of years and has touched every major civilization. Our modern word "sine", is derived from the Latin word sinus, which means "bay" or "fold", from a mistranslation via Arabic of the Sanskrit word jiva, alternatively called jya.

The words "minute" and "second" are derived from the Latin phrases partes minutae primae and partes minutae secundae.

Early developments Sumerian astronomers studied angle measure, using a division of circles into degrees. The ancient Nubians used a similar method.

A history of trigonometry in mathematics

But pre-Hellenic societies lacked the concept of an angle measure and consequently, the sides of triangles were studied instead, a field that would be better called "trilaterometry". Iraqi mathematics The Babylonian astronomers kept detailed records on the rising and setting of starsthe motion of the planetsand the solar and lunar eclipsesall of which required familiarity with angular distances measured on the celestial sphere.

Ancient Egyptian mathematics See also: Egyptian mathematics The Egyptians, on the other hand, used a primitive form of trigonometry for building pyramids in the 2nd millennium BC. In other words, the quantity he found for the seked is the cotangent of the angle to the base of the pyramid and its face.

Hellenistic mathematics The chord of an angle subtends the arc of the angle. Ancient Hellenistic mathematicians made use of the chord. Given a circle and an arc on the circle, the chord is the line that subtends the arc. Due to this relationship, a number of trigonometric identities and theorems that are known today were also known to Hellenistic mathematicians, but in their equivalent chord form.

List of Important Mathematicians - The Story of Mathematics

Theorems on the lengths of chords are applications of the law of sines. Hipparchus may have taken the idea of this division from Hypsicles who had earlier divided the day into parts, a division of the day that may have been suggested by Babylonian astronomy. A seasonal cycle of roughly days could have corresponded to the signs and decans of the zodiac by dividing each sign into thirty parts and each decan into ten parts.

In Book I, he established a basis for spherical triangles analogous to the Euclidean basis for plane triangles. The thirteen books of the Almagest are the most influential and significant trigonometric work of all antiquity.

Indian mathematics Statue of Aryabhata. The next significant developments of trigonometry were in India. Influential works from the 4th—5th century, known as the Siddhantas of which there were five, the most complete survivor of which is the Surya Siddhanta [16] first defined the sine as the modern relationship between half an angle and half a chord, while also defining the cosine, versineand inverse sine.

The words jya and kojya eventually became sine and cosine respectively after a mistranslation described above. Other Indian mathematicians later expanded on these works of trigonometry.

In the 6th century, Varahamihira used the formulas Template: He also gave the following approximation formula for sin xwhich had a relative error of less than 1. Bhaskara II developed spherical trigonometryand discovered many trigonometric results.Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships between the sides and angles of triangles.

Trigonometry is found all throughout geometry, as every straight-sided shape may be. The first of three articles on the History of Trigonometry. This takes us from the Egyptians to early work on trigonometry in China.

History of trigonometry

Trigonometry, the branch of mathematics concerned with specific functions of angles and their application to calculations. There are six functions of an angle commonly used in trigonometry.

There are six functions of an angle commonly used in trigonometry. Trigonometry, the branch of mathematics concerned with specific functions of angles and their application to calculations.

There are six functions of an angle commonly used in trigonometry. There are six functions of an angle commonly used in trigonometry. The history of trigonometry Trigonometry and Pi We can not talk about Mathematics without mentioning Pi, the constant that has turned the . History of Trigonometry Outline Trigonometry is, of course, a branch of geometry, but it differs from the synthetic geometry of Euclid and the ancient Greeks by being computational in nature.

For instance, Proposition I.4 of the Elements is the angle-side-angle congruence theorem which states that a triangle is determined by any two angles and.

List of Important Mathematicians - The Story of Mathematics