Full citation Abstract [Context and Motivation] As a result of recent trends in enhancing Service Oriented Requirement Engineering activities, a number of service description methods have been proposed for describing services. The availability of different service description methods can give developers a range of options to choose from so that they can have an appropriate description method that fits best their services.
De Silva and John M. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas.
Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control.
A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas. A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority of which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches.
Natural breeding sites varied according to location. Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, often present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment.
Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this.
As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. Background Despite recent declines in Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission, largely due to increased distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets LLINs and a switch to artemisinin-based combination therapy ACT drugs, sub-Saharan Africa still suffers greatly from the disease.
In West Africa, the population growth rate for urban areas is estimated at 6.
As Africa becomes increasingly urbanized, factors contributing to urban malaria will become more relevant. The general consensus is that urbanization will lead to decreased malaria transmission.
One recent modelling study predicts a Malaria vector species are known to prefer clean water for breeding, which is difficult to come by in polluted urban areas, and the higher ratio of humans to mosquitoes is also thought to lead to a decreased human biting rate [ 5 ].
However, despite these encouraging factors, malaria transmission persists in African cities and, in some cases, at even higher levels than in surrounding areas [ 6 ]. Indeed, there are African cities experiencing entomological inoculation rates EIRs greater than 80 infective bites per person per year [ 7 ].
A variety of factors may contribute to this, including socioeconomic status, urban agricultural practices and poorly-monitored land use [ 8 ].
Uncontrolled urban expansion can lead to increased malaria transmission as town planners are unable to keep up with sprawling city boundaries and rural practices, which are conducive to vector breeding sites and incorporated into the urban fringes.
Furthermore, areas of low socioeconomic status, often at the periphery of cities, are at particular risk. Here, poor-quality housing, unpaved roads, and reduced access to healthcare provide little protection against the disease [ 9 ].
A number of systematic reviews have investigated the impact of urbanization on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa [ 10 — 12 ], dividing transmission into urban, periurban, and rural settings.
Annual EIRs compiled across dozens of African cities show a strong tendency for transmission to increase in a gradient from urban to periurban to rural areas—in the most recent meta-analysis, the average EIRs were However, urban malaria transmission varies according to a number of additional factors such as location e.
This paper aims to identify the important factors in urban malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, to better understand their interactions, and to discuss their relevance to policy makers in an increasingly urbanized continent.
Literature Search A systematic search on the impact of urbanisation on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa was carried out in April by the first named author on the following electronic databases: The search was performed as follows: Papers referring to Africa were therefore chosen manually.
Inclusion Criteria The above key words yielded a total of 1, published articles. The authors agreed that the articles included from the search should meet the following criteria: The first named author scanned all articles by title, eliminating those that did not concern sub-Saharan Africa, leaving abstracts to be read.
A further abstracts were rejected that did not meet the inclusion criteria.Discussion. There have been recent systematic reviews of studies dealing with perinatal mental disorders in women worldwide 59 and in specific regions, including Asia 6 and Africa, 7 but to our knowledge this is the first review of studies about women in low- and lower-middle-income countries..
This review reveals a serious double disparity. The availability of different service description methods can give developers a range of options to choose from so that they can have an appropriate description method that fits best their services.
Service Identiﬁcation Methods: A Systematic Literature Review 41 Table 2. Types of outputs produced by the SIMs Type of output Description SIM Total. A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a description.
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A Systematic Literature Review on Service Description Methods Each of the 24 papers selected was analyzed, by identifying 1) the problem to be solved by the service description method proposed, 2) the technique(s)/language used.