Learn how to collect your data and analyze it, figuring out what it means, so that you can use it to draw some conclusions about your work. What do we mean by collecting data?
An Introduction to Document Analysis Triad 3 Introduction Document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an assessment topic Bowen, Analyzing documents incorporates coding content into themes similar to how focus group or interview transcripts are analyzed Bowen, A rubric can also be used to grade or score document.
Examples include student transcripts, mission statements, annual reports, policy manuals, student handbooks, strategic plans, and syllabi.
Physical objects found within the study setting often called artifacts. Examples include flyers, posters, agendas, handbooks, and training materials.
Rationale Document analysis is a social research method and is an important research tool in its own right, and is an invaluable part of most schemes of triangulation, the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon Bowen, In order to seek convergence and corroboration, qualitative researchers usually use at least two resources through using different data sources and methods.
The purpose of triangulating is to provide a confluence of evidence that breeds credibility Bowen, Corroborating findings across data sets can reduce the impact of potential bias by examining information collected through different methods.
Also, combining qualitative and quantitative sometimes included in document analysis called mixed-methods studies. Process Before actual document analysis takes place, the researcher must go through a detailed planning process in order to ensure reliable results.
Create a list of texts to explore e. Consider how texts will be accessed with attention to linguistic or cultural barriers. Acknowledge and address biases. Develop appropriate skills for research. Consider strategies for ensuring credibility. Know the data one is searching for.
Consider ethical issues e. Have a backup plan. There is the question of how many documents the researcher should gather.
Bowen suggests that a wide array of documents is better, although the question should be more about quality of the document rather than quantity Bowen, The first is the issue of bias, both in the author or creator of the document, and the researcher as well The researcher must consider the subjectivity of the author and also the personal biases he or she may be bringing to the research.
Bowen adds that the researcher must evaluate the original purpose of the document, such as the target audience He or she should also consider whether the author was a firsthand witness or used secondhand sources. Latent content refers to the style, tone, agenda, facts or opinions that exist in the document.
Bowen adds that documents should be assessed for their completeness; in other words, how selective or comprehensive their data is Develop an organization and management scheme.
Make copies of the originals for annotation. Asses authenticity of documents. Explore background information e. Ask questions about document e. One is the interview technique. Essentially, the researcher determines what is being searched for, then documents and organizes the frequency and amount of occurrences within the document.
Bowen notes that some experts object to this kind of analysis, saying that it obscures the interpretive process in the case of interview transcriptions Bowen, However, Bowen reminds us that documents include a wide variety of types, and content analysis can be very useful for painting a broad, overall picture This analysis takes emerging themes and makes them into categories used for further analysis, making it a useful practice for grounded theory.We can parse each out for analysis.
While the modes of reading and discussing texts can be separated out for purposes of discussion, and it is relatively easy to distinguish between the resulting forms of discussion, in practice these reading techniques overlap.
» Articles published in the past year To view other articles click corresponding year from the navigation links on the side bar. In quantitative data analysis you are expected to turn raw numbers into meaningful data through the application of rational and critical thinking.
Quantitative data analysis may include the calculation of frequencies of variables and differences between variables. A quantitative approach is usually. Philosophy of education: Philosophy of education, philosophical reflection on the nature, aims, and problems of education, focusing on both basic philosophical issues and more specific issues arising from educational practice.
Read more about the history, problems, issues, and tasks of the philosophy of education in this article. The object of the common school system in Massachusetts was to give to every child in the Commonwealth a free, straight solid path-way by which he could walk directly up from the ignorance of an infant to a knowledge of the primary duties of a man; and .
7. Dimension 3 DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS—EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES. E arth and space sciences (ESS) investigate processes that operate on Earth and also address its place in the solar system and the galaxy. Thus ESS involve phenomena that range in scale from the unimaginably large to the invisibly small.