But there is, in fact, no evidence—at least, none I can find—that Kavanaugh considers himself an originalist. In a videohe is asked point blank about his originalism, and he simply fails to answer. Instead, he talks about interpretation of statutes which is not what he was askedand only at the very end says this about the Constitution:
He served in the U. Air Force from to Hanushek held teaching positions at the U. Air Force Academy —73 and at Yale University —78 and was named professor of economics and public policy at the University of Rochester from — Hoxby and Paul E.
Petersonsupport school accountability, teacher incentives, and charter schools and vouchers. Hanushek was a presidential appointee to the Board of Directors of the Eric peterson case study Board for Education Sciences that approves the research priorities of the U. From —13, he served on the Equity and Excellence Commission of the U.
At the state level, he has been appointed to state education advisory commissions by the governor of California and of Texas. Hanushek was the recipient of an award for scholarship from the Thomas B.
Fordham Institute a think tank in As expert witness[ edit ] Since the early s, when plaintiffs have filed lawsuits seeking to overthrow school funding based on local property taxes as inequitable, Hanushek has been called to testify as an expert witness in defense of the state.
He testifies that the problem with schools is not so much lack of funds as inefficiency and asserts that increasing or seeking to equalize appropriations can be wasteful, since his analyses show that more funding produces inconsistent outcomes.
He labels those who oppose these measures as wanting to protect special interests and sacred cows and accuses them of wanting to maintain the status quo. In particular, Hanushek identifies teachers' unions among the entrenched or special interests that oppose the measures he recommends. Burke in New Jersey.
His amicus brief was cited in the five-to-four U. Supreme Court decision of Horne v. Citing Hanushek and Lindseth in a majority opinion written by Justice Alitothe court held that in evaluating the actions of the state, attention should focus on student outcomes rather than on inequalities of spending and other inputs to schools.
In Hanushek was the central expert witness for the defense in the highly publicized case of Lobato vs. State of Colorado, named for Taylor Lobato, who in was a middle-school student when her parents filed a suit that claimed her San Luis Valley school district was underfunded compared to wealthier districts.
In that case, Denver District Judge Sheila Rappaport issued a page decision rejecting the state's arguments, writing that: The relationship between resources and class size and academic performance[ edit ] His paper, "The Economics of Schooling",  reported finding an inconsistent relationship between school resources and student outcomes.
It provoked numerous responses. He suggests that money allocated ought to be spent implementing the policies with proven efficacy, such as replacing teachers who fail to raise test scores and closing schools which persistently fail to produce reasonable student achievement.
Citing with approval Frederick M.
The debate is summed up in Lawrence Mishel and Richard Rothstein eds. The class size debate Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, See also the peer-reviewed assessment of the evidence in Ronald G. Brewer, Adam Gamoran, and J. Douglas Willms, "Class size and student achievement.
It is tautological to say that we will get good performance if we spend the money wisely. Today the existing knowledge base does not ensure that any added funds will, on average, be spent wisely. That is true even if some schools may spend their funds wisely.
Effect of teacher and administrator quality on learning gains[ edit ] Hanushek concludes that teacher quality is by far the most important factor in raising student achievement and, moreover, that teacher quality is not closely related to such factors as teacher salaries, educational background, or experience.
In considering teacher policies, test scores should be one metric by which the quality of teachers should be measured, Hanushek contends. Hanushek's study of inner-city children showed that disadvantaged pupils taught by good teachers gained one-and one-half years of learning, as opposed to only six months when taught by poor teachers — that is, a difference of a full school year.
When applied in teacher personnel decisions, value added assessment has been highly controversial. Inthe value added rankings for more than 6, teachers were published in the Los Angeles Times, resulting in complaints by teachers and their unions that they were being subjected to public shaming.
Nonetheless, a significant number of states now require that teacher evaluations include consideration of student achievement and in some cases require the use of value added measures. These arguments have led to a continuing and contentious debate. One side has argued that this analysis supports arguments for improving teacher evaluations and for eliminating teacher tenure.
The other side has argued that it is not possible to fire yourself to the top. Californiaa case in which he subsequently testified for the plaintiffs.The BRIDGE Study Investigators; From the BRIDGE Study, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC.
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Intermediaries – case study 19 A person (later arrested for drug trafficking) made a financial investment (life insurance) of USD , by means of an insurance broker. He acted as follows. He contacted an insurance broker and delivered a total amount of USD , in three cash instalments.
The insurance broker did not report the [ ].