The emphasis is on the search for a generalized theory of superconductivity. It is observed here that though there are many theories currently in the literature, there are three domineering mechanisms for the Cooper pair formation CPF and their emergent theories of superconductivity. Two of these mechanisms, based on the quantum theory axiom of action-at-a distance, may be only an approximation of the third mechanism which is contact interaction of the wavepackets of the two electrons forming the Cooper pair as envisaged in hadronic mechanics.
Advanced Search Abstract The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test Stanford for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement.
However, the validity and reliability of using the Stanford for this special student population still require extensive scrutiny.
Recent shifts in educational policy environment, which require that schools enable all children to achieve proficiency through accountability testing, warrants a close examination of the adequacy and relevance of the current large-scale testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
This study has three objectives: We begin this review of Past present amp future paper and hard-of-hearing student participation in large-scale assessments of academic achievement with an overview of how state and national testing ideology and policy in recent decades has intersected with testing research and practice.
The developing dominance of test-based accountability has had a profound effect on the nature of student participation in testing programs and test use.
The remainder of the paper is divided into three major sections chronologically: For the present era, we examine the challenges faced in testing deaf and hard-of-hearing students in compliance with the new education laws, addressing especially such issues as whether the current testing programs are adequate and relevant.
Looking to the future, we consider what testing systems should look like and what studies need to be done before such testing programs can be developed. This paper will advance the field toward a clearer strategy for the inclusion of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in state and national testing programs such that the test scores they obtain are reliable and provide valid inferences, which is all too often not the case presently.
The Rise of Accountability Our understanding of deaf and Past present amp future paper student participation and performance in large-scale academic achievement testing programs over the last few decades is informed by both a larger view of assessment policy history in American schools and particular developments unique to deaf education in the United States.
The systematic inclusion and monitoring of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in large-scale assessment programs started in the s, with the Metropolitan Achievement Tests and Stanford Achievement Test SATbefore the current era of test-based accountability.
Mazzeo refers to this earlier period as one when assessment was used primarily for student guidance. The purposes of testing were largely to diagnose student aptitudes and achievements, which would facilitate the identification and nurturance of gifted and talented students as well as detect problems requiring corrective action, and to inform appropriately differentiated instruction.
National performance norms were essential for these identification and monitoring purposes. It was during this era that the Gallaudet Research Institute began its studies of the Stanford Achievement Test Series hereafter referred to as the Stanford for use with deaf and hard-of-hearing children.
As observers of public schooling in the United States may note, however, the expectations and uses of large-scale standardized tests were not constant over the last few decades.
Although the Gallaudet Research Institute was developing strategies for improving the validity of scores derived from administration of the Stanford to deaf and hard-of-hearing students, state and later federal assessment policies were changing.
That is, just as the large-scale concerted effort to facilitate the participation of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in standardized tests of academic achievement within the student guidance framework of the mid-twentieth century had become established and recognized nationally, new uses and purposes of large-scale assessments were dawning with the era of test-based accountability.
Accountability for schools serving students with disabilities, including deaf and hard-of-hearing students, is now firmly entrenched in federal legislation that requires the inclusion of all students in state and district-wide assessment programs i. Moreover, test quality standards have been imposed.
These new laws and regulations call for high-quality tests or adequate test accommodations to meet the need of students with disabilities, including deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
At the same time, however, special education law recognizes that technical standards have not been established for the inclusion of special populations in academic assessment programs, which threatens the legitimacy of test-based accountability for all students.
This is largely a consequence of the need to provide testing accommodations for students with disabilities in order for them to participate in large-scale assessment programs.
Sireci, Scarpati, and Li described how a number of popular test accommodations have little or no consistent evidence to justify their use. Assessment Challenges for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students Developing valid and reliable assessment instruments to measure the achievement levels of deaf and hard-of-hearing students is an ongoing project.
Allen, White, and Karchmer alerted the field to problems with using standardized tests designed for hearing students when assessing deaf and hard-of-hearing students over 20 years ago.
Two important issues stand out. First, a significant proportion of deaf and hard-of-hearing students are neither on grade level nor receiving undiluted instruction in the general curriculum also see Mitchell, ; Steffan, Holt and Allen noted that deaf and hard-of-hearing students who attended special programs or schools may have had a curriculum that varied significantly from the general curriculum, which is likely to have remained true for at least some time after the general curriculum was mandated for students with disabilities in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of hereafter referred to as IDEA ' The assessment consequence of this differential opportunity to learn for deaf and hard-of-hearing students is that when given standardized tests for their age or grade, these students would obtain very low and unreliable scores.
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Out-of-level testing procedures were developed to reduce the threat to test validity resulting from special curricula for deaf and hard-of-hearing students Allen, Second, many deaf and hard-of-hearing students receive classroom instruction through sign language American Sign Language, or ASL, in the United Statesor in some other visual communication mode e.
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Past: A History of Success. CICA was formed in to foster and support the development of captive insurance companies around the globe.
Through the years, CICA has evolved along with the industry to offer alternative risk professionals the latest, most up-to-date viewpoints on captive insurance, and more recently.