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People who are tense and under stress are prone to memory lapses T Translate the information or ideas into your Research and technology for learning and memory words S Rushing or being impulsive reduces attention to the information or task R Rehearse the information immediately and relate the new to the old ideas O Organize the information or organize locations; keep important items in a designated place A A picture is worth words; visualize the information W A small notebook, calendar, tape recorder or PDA can be very useful P The more information is practiced, the better will be the recall V Visualize Associate an image with the information to recall Select the strategy you feel is appropriate for your students.
Teach each step, one at a time. Be sure they understand each step and its meaning before moving on to the next.
Then show the steps in sequence and explain how to use the mnemonic or keyword to help recall the steps. Provide each student with time to process and consolidate one thing before moving on.
Several years ago, a FarSide cartoon was published showing a classroom situation. The student raised his hand and asked to be excused because his "brain was full. Too many strategies at once may confuse the student rather than help.
He is also tossing the ball with each item.
Repetition and rehearsal of information enhance a process called consolidation, the process by which memories are moved from temporary storage in the hippocampus a small structure within the brain to more permanent storage in the cortex the outer layer of the brain Richards,p.
Multiple repetitions of the information provides rehearsal, but doing so may bore students. When bored, the brain can go into a pattern similar to the "screen saver" mode on your computer monitor. The student may not pay attention to what he is repeating.
Therefore, using strategies with humor, movement, songs, and other forms of novelty are critical in enhancing the value of the repetition. As an example, consider the task of learning five state capitals. Following are several different activities to use in memorizing the associations. Practice saying the capital and the state together, as in "Sacramento, California; Columbus, Ohio" etc.
This helps create the association between the two words. Develop silly mnemonics to help remember which capital goes with the state. For Ohio, sketch a picture of a person saying, "oh, hi, oh Columbus. Perform a motor activity such as jumping on a small trampoline or playing catch while saying the city in response to hearing the state, or vice versa see figure 2.
Create a rap or jingle that repeats each state and its capital. Back to top Imagery: When thinking about imagery, most people think of the visual image. However, images can also be a motor image, sometimes called "muscle memory," or an auditory image.
Visual images A visual picture can cue a strategy or represent a concept. For example, suppose your student needs to remember that our First Amendment rights are free speech, religion, the press, and the right of assembly.
Since it is the First Amendment and one rhymes with sun, use a sun as a visual cue. Draw a happy sun with legs and arms, singing. Place the word RAPS in a talk bubble, as shown in figure 3.
There are many different types of visual organizers. Lines extend, with each representing a major concept. The representations may use pictures, icons, or keywords. The example organizer below was developed in preplanning a paragraph on dogs Richards,p.
They can emphasize cause-and-effect, the sequence of an event or episode, or create a summary of what was read. Visual organizers are also useful in planning for a paragraph or report and in studying for a test.
Categorization is a critical skill for students because it forms the basis for critical thinking and inferential comprehension when reading.
A Venn diagram is a valuable organizer that visually emphasizes comparisons and contrasts. A Venn diagram comparing characteristics of mammals and reptiles was presented in the article The Writing Road. Other uses for Venn diagrams include comparing two characters in a story or two different events in history.
Two overlapping circles are drawn and characteristics of one item or event are listed in the left side of the circle if they differ from the other item.
The characteristics of the second item are listed in the right side of the circle if they differ from the first item. Characteristics that are common to both items are placed in the middle. Figure five shows an example of a Venn diagram that comparing and contrasting volcanoes to revolutions.Research has shown that long-term memory is enhanced when students engage in retrieval practice.
Taking a test is a retrieval practice, i.e., the act of recalling information that has been studied from long-term memory. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has allotted $24 million to support research into the proposals for brain machine systems in six different laboratories (McGee & Maguire, ).
These projects have the objective to control robots and airplanes through thought alone (McGee & . Your eyes saw the words, but your mind was somewhere else. You lost your focus, distracted by other thoughts, feelings, sounds. For durable learning, space out your review of the material Spaced review or practice enhances diverse forms of learning, including memory, problem solving, and generalization to new situations.
Spaced practice is a feasible and cost-effective way to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of learning, and research-based instructional.
Educational articles are an excellent resource for parents who are interested in learning about the best parenting practices from experts in the field. Canola oil linked to worsened memory and learning ability in Alzheimer's Date: December 7, Source: Temple University Health System Summary: Canola oil is one of the most widely consumed.