The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. A temple to Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxesthe sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase.
Their numbers have grown exponentially over the past century and now stand at hundreds of thousands nationwide.
Yet the dissident English colonists who framed the United States Constitution would have seen this modern 'police state' as alien to their foremost principles.
Under the criminal justice model known to the Framers, professional police officers were unknown. At the time of the Constitution 's ratification, the office of sheriff was an appointed position, and constables were either elected or drafted from the community to serve without pay.
The courts of that period were venues for private litigation — whether civil or criminal — and the state was rarely a party. Professional police as we know them today originated in American cities during the second quarter of the nineteenth century, when municipal governments drafted citizens to maintain order.
The modern police-driven model of law enforcement helps sustain a playing field that is fundamentally uneven for different players upon it. Modern police act as an army of assistants for state prosecutors and gather evidence solely with an eye toward the state's interests.
Police seal off crime scenes from the purview of defense investigators, act as witnesses of convenience for the state in courts of law, and instigate a substantial amount of criminal activity under the guise of crime fighting.
Additionally, police enforce social class norms and act as tools of empowerment for favored interest groups to the disadvantage of others.
They conducted their investigations in the manner of neighborhood sleuths, dispersing throughout the community to question people about their knowledge of crimes. In the early s, grand jurors were sometimes called upon to make arrests in cases where suspects were armed and in large numbers.The constitutionalist revolution: an essay on the history of England, [Alan Cromartie] -- An innovative account of English constitutional ideas from the mid-fifteenth century to the time of Charles I, showing how the emergence of grand claims for common law, the country's strange.
The Constitutionalist Revolution: An Essay on the History of England, The Constitutionalist Revolution: An Essay on the History of England, Ideas in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. index. bibl. $ His basic theme is the development of constitutionalist ideas from the fifteenth century.
Cambridge University Press -The Constitutionalist Revolution- An Essay on the History of England, - by Alan Cromartie Index.
Introductory Proviso: The following essay on possible gun confiscation is a purely conjectural gedankenexperiment about the future that extrapolates from recent history and current alphabetnyc.comg herein is seditious (per 18 U.S.
Code § ), nor a call to arms, nor a threat to our government or to any individual, agency, or group. Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America.
Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
Matt Bracken is the author of the Enemies Foreign And Domestic trilogy, along with his latest novel, Castigo Cay. Author’s Note: This essay and last week’s “What I Saw At The Coup” were both written in response to the article published on July 25, in the semi-official Small Wars Journal titled “Full Spectrum Operations in the Homeland: A Vision of the Future.”.