If the tracking axis r is tilted toward the south as is often done, the equations above simplify on setting to degrees. Offset Aperture In some tracking designs, the collector aperture is offset relative to the tracking axis by an angle as shown in Figure 4. For this design, the tracking angle is still as computed by Equation 4.

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We are going to give several forms of the heat equation for reference purposes, but we will only be really solving one of them. Note that with this assumption the actual shape of the cross section i. Note that the 1-D assumption is actually not all that bad of an assumption as it might seem at first glance.

If we assume that the lateral surface of the bar is perfectly insulated i. This means that heat can only flow from left to right or right to left and thus creating a 1-D temperature distribution. The assumption of the lateral surfaces being perfectly insulated is of course impossible, but it is possible to put enough insulation on the lateral surfaces that there will be very little heat flow through them and so, at least for a time, we can consider the lateral surfaces to be perfectly insulated.

As indicated we are going to assume, at least initially, that the specific heat may not be uniform throughout the bar.

Note as well that in practice the specific heat depends upon the temperature. As noted the thermal conductivity can vary with the location in the bar. Also, much like the specific heat the thermal conductivity can vary with temperature, but we will assume that the total temperature change is not so great that this will be an issue and so we will assume for the purposes here that the thermal conductivity will not vary with temperature.

First, we know that if the temperature in a region is constant, i. Next, we know that if there is a temperature difference in a region we know the heat will flow from the hot portion to the cold portion of the region.

Course materials, exam information, and professional development opportunities for AP teachers and coordinators. Learn how to write and solve equations based on Algebra word problems. The Decodyne Math Clock is a traditional wall clock with three-hand motion but with one important twist--its hours are marked by simple math equations.

For example, if it is hotter to the right then we know that the heat should flow to the left. Finally, the greater the temperature difference in a region i. In this case we generally say that the material in the bar is uniform. There are four of them that are fairly common boundary conditions.

The first type of boundary conditions that we can have would be the prescribed temperature boundary conditions, also called Dirichlet conditions. These are usually used when the bar is in a moving fluid and note we can consider air to be a fluid for this purpose.

Here are the equations for this kind of boundary condition.

Note that the two conditions do vary slightly depending on which boundary we are at. If the heat flow is negative then we need to have a minus sign on the right side of the equation to make sure that it has the proper sign.

Note that we are not actually going to be looking at any of these kinds of boundary conditions here. These types of boundary conditions tend to lead to boundary value problems such as Example 5 in the Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions section of the previous chapter.

It is important to note at this point that we can also mix and match these boundary conditions so to speak. This warning is more important that it might seem at this point because once we get into solving the heat equation we are going to have the same kind of condition on each end to simplify the problem somewhat.The word financing usually conjures some mixed feelings in your mind.

High bar of entry, excessive interest rates, credit scores. Where is the part of financing where you come into the equation? Learn how to write and solve equations based on Algebra word problems. The word financing usually conjures some mixed feelings in your mind.

High bar of entry, excessive interest rates, credit scores. Where is the part of financing where you come into the equation? Algebra 1 Here is a list of all of the skills students learn in Algebra 1!

These skills are organized into categories, and you can move your . After understanding the exponential function, our next target is the natural logarithm.. Given how the natural log is described in math books, there’s little “natural” about it: it’s defined as the inverse of e^x, a strange enough exponent already.

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Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates – She Loves Math